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2012年职称英语阅读理解 综合 C级

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2012 年职称英语阅读理解 (综合类 C 级)教材
第一篇 第二篇 第三篇 第四篇 第五篇 第六篇 第七篇 (新增)Telling Tales about People Outside -the-classroom Learning Makes a Big Difference Milosevic's Death Feast on Turkey and Good Wishes at Thanksgiving Sino—Japan Animosity Lessens TV Shows and Long Bus Trips Modern Sun Worshippers

第八篇 (新增)The Changing Middle Class 第九篇 Single-parent Kids Do Best

第十篇 (新增)A Letter from Alan 第十一篇 第十二篇 第十三篇 第十四篇 第十五篇 第十六篇

(新增)The Development of Ballet
Smuggling The Barbie Dolls Sleep Orbital Space Plane

(新增)The Sahara

1 Telling Tales about People One of the most common types of nonfiction, and one that many people enjoy reading, is stories about people's lives. These stories fall into three general categories: autobiography, memoir, and biography. An autobiography is the story of a person's life written by himself or herself. Often it begins with the person's earliest recollections and ends in the present. Autobiography writers may not be entirely objective in the way they present themselves. However, they offer the reader a good look at the way they are and what makes them that way. People as diverse as Benjarmin Franklin and Helen Keller have written autobiographies. 1Other writers, such as James Joyce,have written thinly fictionalized accounts of their lives. These are not autobiographies,but they are very close to it. Memoirs, strictly speaking, are autobiographical accounts that focus as much on the events of the times as on the life of the author. 2Memoir writers typically use these events as backdrops for their lives. They describe them in detail and discuss their importance. Recently , though , the term memoir seems to be becoming interchangeab1e with autobiography. A memoir nowadays may or may not deal with the outside world. Biographies are factual accounts of someone else's life. In many senses,these may be the hardest of the three types to write. Autobiography writers know the events they write about because they lived them. But biography writers have to gather information from as many different sources as possible. Then they have to decide which facts to include. Their goal is to present a balanced picture of a person,not one that is overly positive or too critical. A fair well-presented biography may take years to research and write. 词汇: Backdrop n. 背景 interchangeable adj. 可转换的 注释: 1. People as diverse as Benjamin Franklin and Helen Keller have written autobiographies. 就像本杰明 富兰克林和海伦 凯勒一样,各种各样的人们已经 写了自传。 2. Memoirs, strictly speaking, autobiographical accounts that focus as much on are the events of the times as on the life of the author. 严格意义上来讲,回忆录是既注 重作者本身的生活经历,也注*渌Φ氖贝⑸氖录淖源缘拿枋觥 练*: 1. This passage is mostly about _______. A. the characteristics of autobiographies,memoirs,and biographies B. famous autobiographies C. why biography can be difficult to write D. differences between autobiographies and memoirs 2. Helen Keller wrote________. A. a memoir B. an autobiography

C. a work of fiction D. a biography 3. Autobiography writers are not always objective because they________. A. feel they have to make up details to make their books sell B. constantly compete with biography writers C. want to present themselves in a good light D. have trouble remembering the good times 4. The writer introduces each category in the passage by________. A. defining it B. giving an example C. explaining why it is hard to write D. telling when people first began writing it 5. Diverse means________. A. able to swim in deep water B. similar or alike C. varied or different D. enjoying poetry 答案与题解: 1. A 本题问的是:这篇文章主要是关于?文章第一句说到最普遍的非小说类 文学作品类型之一就是一些来描述人们生活的故事,这些故事大致分为三类:自 传 回忆录和传记。然后通篇对这三种类型进行了介绍,因此 A 是正确答案。 2. B 本题问的是: 海伦 凯勒谢了什么?第二段第 5 句话写到: 就像本明杰 富 兰克林和 海伦 凯勒一样,各种各样的人们已经写了自传。因此 B 是正确答案。 3. C 本题问的是:自传作者通常不太客观,因为他们?第二段提到:他们给读 者提供了一个途径来了解自己比较好的行事风格……,因此答案是 C,他们想展 示自己好的一面。 4. A 本题问的是: 本文的作者通过何种方式介绍每种类型的非小说文学作品? 答案是 A,通过给每个类型进行定义。 5. C 本题问的是:diverse 的意思是?其汉语意思为―多种多样的‖,因此 C 正 确。

2 Outside-the-classroom Learning Makes a Big Difference Putting a bunch of college students in charge of a $300,000 Dance Marathon, fundraiser surely sounds a bit risky. When you consider the fact that the money is supposed to be given to children in need of medical care, you might call the idea crazy. Most student leaders don't want to spend a large amount of time on something they care little about, said 22-year-old University of Florida student Darren Heitner. He was the Dance Marathon's operations officer for two years. Yvonne Fangmeyer, director of the student organization office at the University of Wisconsin, conducted' a survey in February of students involved in campus

organizations. She said the desire for friendship was the most frequently cited reason for joining. At large universities like Fangmeyer's, which has more than 40,000 students, the students first of all want to find a way to ,belong in their own comer of campus". Katie Rowley, a Wisconsin senior, confirms the survey's findings. "I wanted to make the campus feel smaller by joining an organization where I could not only get involved on campus but also find a group of friends." All of this talk of friendship, however, does not mean that students aren't thinking about their resumes. "I think that a lot of people do join to 'fatten up their resume'," said Heitner. "At the beginning of my college career, I joined a few of these organizations, hoping to get a start in my leadership roles." But without passion student leaders can have a difficult time trying to weather the storms that come. For example, in April, several student organizations at Wisconsin teamed up for an event designed to educate students about homelessness and poverty. Student leaders had to face the problem of solving disagreements, moving the event because of rainy weather, and dealing with the university's complicated bureaucracy. "Outside-of the classroom learning really makes a big difference," Fangmeyer said. 1. An extracurricular activity like raising a fund of $300,000 is risky because most student leaders A. are lazy. B. are stupid. C. are not rich enough. D. will not take an interest in it. 2. American students join campus organizations mostly for A.making a difference. B. gaining experience. C. building friendship. D. improving their resumes. 3. Who is Katie Rowley? A. She's a senior professor. B. She's a senior student. C. She's a senior official. D. She's a senior citizen 4. What do student leaders need to carry an activity through to a successful end? A.Passion. B. Money. C. Power. D. Fame. 5. The phrasal verb fatten up in paragraph 6 could be best replaced by A. invent. B. rewrite. C. polish. D. complete.

3

Milosevic’s Death

Former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic was found dead last Saturday in his cell at the Hague-based International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The 64-year-old had been on trial there since February 2002. Born in provincial Pozarevac in 1941, he was the second son of a priest and a school teacher. Both of his parents died when he was still a young adult. The young Milosevic was ―untypical‖, says Slavoljub Djukic, his unofficial biographer. He was ―not interested in sports, avoided excursions and used to come to school dressed in the old-fashioned way —white shirt and tie.‖ One of his old friends said, he could ―imagine him as a station-master or punctilious civil servant‖. Indeed that is exactly what he might have become, had he not married Mira. She was widely believed to be his driving force. At university and beyond he did well. He worked for various firms and was a communist party member. By 1986 he was head of Serbia‘s Central Committer. But still he had not yet really been noticed. It was Kosovo that gave him his chance. An autonomous province of Serbia, Kosovo was home to an Albanian majority and a Serbian minority. In 1989, he was sent there to calm fears of Serbians who felt they were discriminated against. But instead he played the nationalist card and became their champion. In so doing, he changed into a ruthless and determined man. At home with Mira he plotted the downfall of his political enemies. Conspiring with the director of Serbian TV, he mounted a modern media campaign which aimed to get him the most power in the country. He was elected Serbian president in 1990. In 1997, he became president of Yugoslavia. The rest of the story is well-known: his nationalist card caused Yugoslavia‘s other ethnic groups to fight for their own rights, power and lands. Yugoslavia broke up when four of the six republics declared independence in 1991. War started and lasted for years and millions died. Then Western countries intervened. NATO bombed Yugoslavia, and he eventually stepped down as state leader in 2000. Soon after this, Serbia‘s new government, led by Zoran Djindjic, arrested him and sent him to face justice at the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in the Hague. 1. Where did Milosevic die? A. In a basement. B. In prison. C. In a small room. D. In his own country. 2. Which of the following is NOT true of the young Milosevic? A. He dressed in a pretty old-fashioned way. B. He was not interested in sports.

C. He was an ordinary person. D.He was extremely ambitious. 3. All of the following persons in one way or another changed his fate EXCEPT A.Mira. B. His parents. C. Zoran Djindjic. D. The Director of Serbian TV. 4. Why was Milosevic sent to Kosovo in 1989? A. To handle economic issues. B. To drive Albanians back to their own country. C. To remove the Serbians‘ fears that they were discriminated against. D. To launch an attack against his political enemies. 5. What happened in 1991? A. Yugoslavia broke up. B. Western countries intervened. C. NATO bombed Yugoslavia. D. Milosevic was arrested.

4 Feast on Turkey and Good Wishes at Thanksgiving Four weeks ago US children dressed as monsters and asked for sweets. That was Halloween In a few weeks American houses will be red and green and filled with presents, for Christmas. As if all this isn‘t enough, on Thursday this week, America will enjoy another festival—Thanksgiving. Children will have two days off school, shops will close and houses will be filled with families enjoying mountains of food. Every year, in Gainesville, Florida, an entire class celebrate Thanksgiving together. The class dresses up and puts on plays for their families, After the plays the families share a feast of traditional Thanksgiving foods like turkey and pumpkin pie. Dean Foster, an 11-year-old boy will take part in this celebration. He said: ―I love Thanksgiving because it means time off school, lots of nice food and a happy family.‖ His brother Ben, nine, said: ―The best thing about Thanksgiving, is that when it is finished, it is time to start Christmas.‖ But behind the food and the large amount of money spent there is another message. On Thursday evening. Dean and Ben‘s family will make a basket and put it on the table as they eat their evening meal. Each of them will write a list of things that they are thankful for and place the paper in the basket. The family will read the pieces of paper and take time to thank God and each other for providing them with comfortable and happy lives.

Thanksgiving is a traditional festival that started in 1621, when the first pilgrims arrived in the US to start a new life. After a hard year, they had a big autumn harvest. They held a feast and invited the native American Indians along to thank God for giving them enough food. Many countries celebrate Thanksgiving. They often fall after the fields have been harvested and the crops collected for winter. On Halloween, children in the United States often dress up as A. ghosts. B. players. C. pilgrims. D. visitors. 2. When are turkey and pumpkin pie eaten? A. On Halloween. B. On Thursday. C. On Thanksgiving. D. On Christmas Day. 3. Thanksgiving is the time for the American people to thank God for A. looking after them. B. providing them with comfortable and happy lives. C. clothing them. D. protecting them. 4. Many children in the United States like Thanksgiving because A. they can stay with their parents at home and eat a lot of nice food. B. they can dress up like monsters. C. they can put on plays. D. they can visit American Indians. 5. The first pilgrims settled in the United States in A.1621. B.1620. C.1622. D.1619. 1.

5

Sino—Japan Animosity Lessens

Chinese and Japanese people view each other slightly more positively than last year, according to a survey released on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing. The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily and Genron NPO, a Japanese think tank similar to the American Council on Foreign Relations. It also found overwhelming agreement in both countries that Sino-Japanese relations were important. The survey is a part of the Beijing-Tokyo Forum, an annual gathering of senior government officials and representatives from Chinese and Japanese NGOs designed to improve communication and understanding between the two countries. Conducted every year for five years now, the survey focused on two different groups of people: ordinary citizens, and intellectuals. In China, the intellectual group was comprised mainly of university students from well-known schools like Peking

University. In Japan, the ―intellectual‖ group was mainly made up of previous members of Genron NPO. Among ordinary Chinese polled, 35.7 percent said they have ―very good‖ or ―relatively good‖ impressions of Japan, a 5.5-percentage-point increase compared with last year. 45.2 percent of Chinese students had a positive impression of Japan, two percentage points more than last year. Only 26.6 percent of Japanese have a positive impression of China, however. Still, an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country said Sino-Japanese relations were ―important‖ and wanted their leaders to deepen talks and cooperation with each other. But 51.9 percent of ordinary people and 42.4 percent of students in China said they saw no change in relations between the two countries over the last year. In Japan, 64.8 percent of those ordinary people and 53.4 percent of intellectuals surveyed shared the view that there was no improvement in bilateral ties this year. Historical issues and territorial disputes remain two major obstacles to improving bilateral relations, the survey found. What concerns the Chinese most are historical issues, visits by Japanese officials to Yasukuni Shrine, and the Nanjing Massacre. Perceptions on economic and trade relations, have improved, though. About 47 percent of ordinary Japanese said China had been ―helpful‖ this year in fighting the global economic crisis compared with just 30 percent last year.The percent of Japanese intellectuals who said Chinese economic growth was good for Japan increased from 65.8 percent to 8 1.4 percent this year. Cooperation in East Asian issues ,trade and investment ,energy, and the environment and climate change top the list of common concerns that people in China and Japan want their leaders to talk about in bilateral meetings,the survey found. Civil exchanges were regarded by the most people from the both countries as an important way to improve relations. 7 percent of the students and 85. percent of 90. 7 the ordinary people in China and 95.8%of intellectuals and 74.8%of the ordinary people in Japan viewed civil exchanges as ―important‖ or ―relatively important‖. Chinese and Japanese both learn about each other‘s countries mostly through television news and newspapers,the survey found. 1.Which of the following statements about the survey is true? A. The survey was conducted on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing. B. The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily, Genron NPO and the American Council on Foreign Relations. C. The survey found that people in both China and Japan generally agree that the relationship between the two countries is important. D. The survey mainly focused on two different groups of people:ordinary citizens,and the university students. 2.According to the passage,the Beijing—Tokyo Forum

A. is held every year in Beijing. B. aims at promoting communication between the two countries. C. mainly attracts representatives from the governments of the two countries. D. releases a survey on Sino—Japanese relation every five years. 3.In the last year, %of ordinary Chinese and %of Chinese students have a positive impression of Japan. A. 35.7;45.2 B. 51.9;42.4 C. 5.5;26.6 D. 30.2;43.2 4.Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the major obstacles to improving bilateral ties? A. territorial disputes B. trade frictions C.visits by Japanese officials to Yasukuni Shrine D. the Nanjing Massacre 5. The survey found that A. most Japanese had good or relatively good impressions of China. B. the bilateral relationship was perceived as being improved over last year by the majority of respondents from the both countries. C. an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country believed that the Civil exchanges were an important way to improve relations. D. The territorial issue ranked among the top list of common concerns that people in both countries want their leaders to talk about in bilateral meetings.

6

TV Shows and Long Bus Trips

Long bus rides are like television shows. They have a beginning, a middle and an end—with commercials thrown in every three or four minutes. The commercials are unavoidable. They happen whether you want them or not. Every couple of minutes a billboard glides by outside the bus window. ―But Super Clean Toothpaste.‖ ―Drink Golden Wet Root Beer.‖ ―Fill up with Pacific Gas.‖ Only if you sleep, which is equal to turning the television set off, are you spared the unending cry of ―You Need It! But It Now! ‖ The beginning of the ride is comfortable and somewhat exciting, even if you‘ve traveled that way before. Usually some things have changed—new houses, new buildings, sometimes even a new road. The bus driver has a style of driving and it‘s fun to try to figure it out the first hour or so. If the driver is particularly reckless or

daring, the ride can be as thrilling as a suspense story. Will the driver pass the truck in time? Will the driver move into the right or the left-handed lane? After a while, of course, the excitement dies down. Sleeping for a while helps pass the middle hours of the ride. Food always makes bus rides more interesting. But you‘ve got to be careful of what kind of food you eat. Too much salty food can make you very thirsty between stops. The end of the ride is somewhat like the beginning. You know it will soon be over and there‘s a kind of expectation and excitement in that. The seat, of course, has become harder as the hours have passed. By now you‘ve sat with your legs crossed, with your hands in your lap, with your hands on the arm rests—even with your hands crossed behind your head. The end comes just at the right time. There are just no more ways to sit. 1. According to the passage, what do the passengers usually see when they are on a long bus trip? A. Buses on the road. B. Films on television. C. Advertisements on the board. D. Gas stations. 2. What is the purpose of this passage? A. To talk about the similarities between long bus trips and TV shows. B. To persuade you to take a long bus trip. C. To display the difference between long bus trips and TV shows. D. To describe the billboards along the road. 3. The writer of this passage would probably favor A. bus drivers who weren't reckless. B. driving alone. C. a television set on the bus. D. no billboards along the road. 4. The writer feels long bus rides are like TV shows because A. the commercials both on TV shows and on billboards along the road are fun. B. they both have a beginning, a middle, and an end, with commercials in between. C. the drivers are always reckless on TV shows just as they are on buses. D. both traveling and watching TV are not exciting. 5. The writer thinks that the end of the ride is somewhat like the beginning because both are A. exciting. B. comfortable. C. tiring. D. boring.

7

Modern Sun Worshippers

People travel for a lot of reasons. Some tourists go to see battlefields or religious shrines. Others are looking for culture, or simply want to have their picture taken in front of famous places. But most European tourists are looking for a sunny beach to lie on. Northern Europeans are willing to pay a lot of money and put up with a lot of inconveniences for the sun because they have so little of it. Residents of cities like London, Copenhagen, and Amsterdam spend a lot of their winter in the dark because the days are so short, and much of the rest of the year in the rain. This is the reason the Mediterranean has always attracted them. Every summer, more than 25 million people travel to Mediterranean resorts and beaches for their vacation. They all come for the same reason: sun! The huge crowds mean lots of money for the economies of Mediterranean countries. Italy‘s 30, 000 hotels are booked solid every summer. And 13 million people camp out on French beaches, parks, and roadsides. Spain‘s long sandy coastline attracts more people than anywhere else. 37 million tourists visit yearly, or one tourist for every person living in Spain. But there are signs that the area is getting more tourism that it can handle. The Mediterranean is already one of the most polluted seas on earth. And with increased tourism, it's getting worse. The French can‘t figure out what to do with all the garbage left by campers around St. Tropez. And in many places, swimming is dangerous because of pollution. None of this, however, is spoiling anyone's fun. The Mediterranean gets more popular every year with tourists. Obviously, they don't go there for clean water and solitude. They tolerate traffic jams and seem to like crowded beaches. They don't even mind the pollution. No matter how dirty the water is, the coastline still looks beautiful. And as long as the sun shines, it's still better than sitting in the cold rain in Berlin, London, or Oslo. 1. The writer seems to imply that Europeans travel mostly for the reason that A. they want to see historic remains or religious spots. B. they are interested in different cultural traditions and social customs. C. they would like to take pictures in front of famous sites. D. they wish to escape from the cold, dark and rainy days back at home. 2. In paragraph 2, cities like London, Copenhagen, and Amsterdam are mentioned A. to show that they are not good cities in terms of geography and climate. B. to tell us how wealthy their residents are. C. to suggest that these cities lack places of historic interest and scenic beauty. D. to prove that they have got more tourism than they can handle. 3. According to the passage, which of the following countries attracts more tourists than the others?

A. Italy. B. Spain. C. France. D. Greece. 4. The latter half of the last sentence in paragraph 3, i.e., ―or one tourist for every person living in Spain‖ means A. all the 37 million people living in Spain are tourists. B. every year almost as many tourists visit Spain as there are people living in that country. C. every person living in Spain has to take care of a tourist. D. every Spanish is visited by a tourist every year. 5. According to the passage, which of the following factors might spoil the tourists' fun at Mediterranean resorts and beaches? A. Polluted water. B. Crowded buses. C. Traffic jams. D. Rainy weather.

8

The Changing Middle Class

The United States perceives itself to be a middle-class nation. However,middle class is not a real designation, does it carry privileges.1 It is more of a perception, nor which probably was as true as it ever could be right after World War II. The economy was growing,more and more people owned their own homes,workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them,and nearly everyone who wanted a higher education could have one. Successful people enjoyed upward social mobility. They may have started out poor,but they could become rich. Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility. In other words , they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places. The middle class collectively holds several values and principles. One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate. In addition , middle class morality embraces principles of individual responsibility, importance of family, obligations to others, believing in something and outside oneself. 2 But in the 1990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success. A U. S.News & World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet 3. Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children; long commutes became routine; the need for child care put strains on4 the family; and public schools were not as good as they once were. Members of the middle cIass were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing. 词汇: designation /dezig'nei??n/ n. 称号 commute /k?'mju:t/ n. 上下班路程 mobility /m?u'bil?ti/ n. 流动性

注释: 1. However, middle c1ass is not a real designation, does it carry privileges. 然 nor 而,中产阶级既不是一个真实的称号,也不会带来特别待遇。 2. In addition , middle-c1ass morality embraces principles of individual responsibility, importance of family, obligations to others, believing in something and outside onesè 另外,中产阶级的道德观包括个人的责任感、家庭的重要性、对 lf. 他人的使命感以及相信自我以外的事物。 3. make ends meet:收支相抵,维持生活 4. put strains on:带来压力 练*: 1. The information in this passage deals with_______. A) an individual B) a social and economic group C) a political organization D) government 2. A common middle class value is that________. A) people should always have fun B) children should be seen and not heard C) debt is nothing to worry about D) the family is very important 3. ln the years after World War II,the middle class could be defined as_______. A) overburdened and in debt B) hard working and suspicious C) prosperous and optimistic D) young and foolish 4. The phrase ―In other words" in the first paragraph means that the following statement is_____. A) an exception to the previous idea B) a denial of the previous idea C) a restatement of the previous idea D) a contrasting idea 5. The word collectively means______. A) as a group B) hesitatingly C) unknowingly D) weakly 答案与题解: 1. B 本题的问题是:本文的信息是关于?本文通篇讲述美国的中产阶级,指 的是社会和经济群体,因此选择 B。 2. D 本题的问题是: 一个普遍的中产阶级价值观是?本篇第二段最后一句话讲 到,―中产阶级的道德观包括个人的责任感、家庭的重要性、对他人的使命感以 及相信自我以外的事物‖。A、B、C 三个选项不包括在内,因此正确答案是 D。

3. C 本题的问题是:在二战之后的几年,中产阶级可以被定义为,本篇第一 段提到了当时美国经济不断增长并且人们生活水*有了提高,因此选择 C 选项, 繁荣并且乐观。 4. C 本题的问题是:第一段中的"ln other words"这个短语与下列说法一致的 是,"In other words"汉语意思是换句话来说,因此正确答案是 C。 5. A 本题的问题是:单词"collectively"的汉语意思是―相同地‖,选择 A。

9

Single-parent Kids Do Best

Single mums are better at raising their kids than two parents—at least in the bird world. Mother zebra finches have to work harder and raise fewer chicks on their own, but they also produce more attractive sons who are more likely to get a mate. The finding shows that family conflict is as important an evolutionary driving force as ecological factors such as hunting and food supply. With two parents around, there‘s always a conflict of interests, which can have a detrimental effect on the quality of the offspring. In evolutionary terms, the best strategy for any parent in the animal world is to find someone else to care for their offspring, so they can concentrate on breeding again. so it‘s normal for parents to try to pass the buck to each other. But Ian Hartley from the University of Lancaster and his team wondered how families solve this conflict, and how the conflict itself affects the offspring. To find out, they measured how much effort zebra finch parents put into raising their babies. They compared ingle females with pairs, by monitoring the amount of food each parent collected, and removing or adding chicks so that each pair of birds was raising four chicks, and each single mum had two—supposedly the same amount of work. But single mums, they found, put in about 25 per cent more effort than females rearing with their mate. To avoid being exploited, mothers with a partner hold back from working too hard if the father is being lazy, and it‘s the chicks that pay the price. ―The offspring suffer some of the cost of this conflict,‖ says Hartley. The cost does not show in any obvious decrease in size or weight, but in how attractive they are to the opposite sex. When the chicks were mature, the researchers tested the ―fitness‖ of the male offspring by offering females their choice of partner. Those males reared by single mums were chosen more often than those from two-parent families. Sexual conflict has long been tough to affect the quality of care given to offspring, says zoologist Rebecca Kilner at Cambridge University, who works on conflict of parents in birds. ―But the experimental evidence is not great. The breakthrough here is showing it empirically.‖

More surprising, says Kilner, is Hartley‘s statement that conflict may be a strong influence on the evolution of behaviour, clutch size and even appearance. ―People have not really made that link,‖ says Hartley. A female‘s reproductive strategy is usually thought to be affected by hunting and food supply. Kilner says conflict of parents should now be taken into account as well. 1. With which of the following statements would the author probably agree? A. Single mums produce stronger sons. B. Single mums do not produce daughters. C. Two-parent families produce less attractive children. D. Two-parent families produce more beautiful offspring. 2.According to the passage, in what way does family conflict affect the quality of the offspring? A. The young males get less care. B. The young females will decrease in weight. C. The offspring will become lazy fathers or mothers in the future. D. the offspring will not get mature easily. 3.What is the relationship between paragraph 4 and paragraph 5? A. Cause and effect. B. Experiment and result. C. Problem and solution. D. topic and comment. 4. According to Hartley, which of the following is NOT influenced by sexual conflict? A. The evolution of the offspring‘s behaviour. B. The look of the offspring‘s faces. C. the number of eggs produced by one offspring at a time. D. The offspring‘s body size. 5.According to the passage, people believe that a female‘s reproductive strategy is influenced by A. an evolutionary driving force. B. a conflict of interests. C. ecological factors. D. the quality of the offspring.

10

A Letter from Alan

I have learnt of a plan to build three hundred houses on the land called Parson's Place by the football ground. Few people know about this new plan to increase the size of our town. For me, Parson's Place is special because it is a beautiful natural area where local people can relax - the small wood has many unusual trees and the stream is popular with fishermen and bird-watchers. It's very quiet because there are few houses or roads nearby. I think that losing this area will be terrible because we have no other similar facilities in the neighbourhood.

I am also against this plan because it will cause traffic problems. How will the people from the new houses travel to work? The motorway and the railway station are on the other side of town. Therefore,these people will have to drive through the town centre every time they go anywhere. The roads will always be full of traffic,there will be nowhere to park and the tourists who come to see our lovely old buildings will leave. Shops and hotels will lose business. If the town really needs more homes,the empty ground beside the railway station is a more suitable place. No doubt the builders will make a lot of money by selling these houses. But,in my opinion, average person will quickly be made poorer by this plan. As well as this, the we will lose a very special place and our town will be much less pleasant. I am going to the local government offices on Monday morning to protest about this plan and I hope that your readers will join me there. We must make them stop this plan before it is too late. 词汇: facility /f?‘sil?ti/ n. 场所,设施 protest /pr?u‘test/ v. 抗议 motorway / ?m?ut?wei / n. 高速公路 注释: 1. For me, Parson's Place is special because it is a beautiful natural area where local people can relax—the small wood has many unusual trees and the stream is popular with fishermen and bird-watchers. 对我来说,帕森场是非常特别的,因为它是一个美 丽的天然场地并且当地人可以在此放松休息。 这片小树林里有许多独特的树木并 且这里的小溪受到了渔夫和野鸟观察 者的欢迎。 2. The roads will always be full of traffic,there will be nowhere to park and the tourists who come to see our lovely old buildings will leave. 公路上将总是有很多 车辆, 却没有地方停车, 并且来参观我们这儿可爱的老式建筑物的观光者将会离 开这里。 3. As well as this,we will lose a very special place and our town will be much less pleasant.不但 如此,我们将失去一个非常特别的地方并且我们的城镇将会失去很多快乐。 练*: 1. Why has Alan written this letter? A) To persuade the government to build new houses. B) To protest about a new motorway near the town. C) To encourage more people in the town to use Parson's Place. D) To inform other people about the builders' plans. 2. Why is Parson's Place particularly important,in Alan's opinion? A) Because it is near the football ground. B) Because lots of people live near it. C) Because it is a place near the town where people can enjoy nature. D) Because local people can get there easily by car from the town.

3. What will cause traffic jams? A) A building on Parson's Place. B) Building near the railway station. C) Tourists in the narrow streets. D) People going to the shops and hotels. 4. Alan says that ordinary people who live in the town will probably soon _____. A) open new shops and hotels B) choose to live near the station C) be able to buy new homes D) have less money 5. Which of these posters has Alan made? A) SAVE OUR SPORTS GROUND B) SAY NO TO HOUSES ON PARSON' S PLACE C) WE NEED HOMES NOT HOTELS D) USE THE TRAIN NOT THE ROAD 答案与题解: 1. D 本题问的是:为什么 Alan 写这封信? A、B、C 选项在文中没有提到,D 选 项的意思是让其他人了解建筑商的计划,因此 D 是正确答案。 2. C 本题问的是:在 Alan 看来,为什么帕森场非常重要?第一段中提到―因为它 是一个美丽的天然场地并且当地人可以在此放松休息‖。因此 C 是正确答案。 3. A 本题问的是:什么将会引起交通堵塞?第二段提到了, 如果按照建筑商的计 划,那么―公 路上将总是有很多车辆,却没有地方来停车‖。因此选择 A。 4. D 本题问的是:Alan 说住在城镇的人们将来可能会,本文第三段提到―每个 人将会因这个计划的实施而快速地变穷"。因此选择 D。 5. B 本题问的是:以下哪个是 Alan 制作的海报? Alan 在本文中一直在说抵* 筑商在帕森 场上建造房屋的计划,因此选择 B,对帕森场上的房屋说不。

11

The Development of Ballet

Ballet is a dance form that has a long history. The fact that it survives to this day shows that it has adjusted as times have changed. Ballet began in the royal courts during the Renaissance. At that time it became common for kings and queens,as well as other nobility,to participate in pageants that included music,poetry, and dance. As these entertainments moved from the Italian courts to the French ones, court ladies began participating in them. Though their long dresses prevented much movement,they were able to perform elaborate walking patterns. It was not until the 1600s that women dancers shortened their skirts,changed to flat shoes,and began doing some of the leaps and turns performed by men. It was also in the 1600s that professional ballet began. King Louis XIV of France, himself a devoted dancer,founded the Royal Academy of Dance. The five basic feet

positions from which all ballet steps begin were finalized. In the late 1700s another important change occurred. Ballet began to tell a story on its own. It was no longer simply dance to be performed between acts of plays. Elaborate wigs and costumes were eliminated. By the early 1800s dancers learned to rise on their toes to make it appear that they were floating. Classical ballet as we know it today was influenced primarily by Russian dancing. The Russians remained interested in ballet when it declined in other European countries in the mid -1800s. One of the most influential figures of the early 20th century was Sergei Diaghilev. His dance company,the Ballets Russes,brought a new energy and excitement to ballet. One of his chief assistants,George Balanchine,went on to found the New York City Ballet in 1948 and to influence new generations of dancers. 词汇: adjust / ?' d??st/v. 调整 eliminate /i'limineit/ v. 淘汰 pageant / 'p?d? ?nt / n. 盛会 influential / influ'en??l/adj. 有影响力的 注释: 1. At that time it became common for kings and queens,as well as other nobility,to participate in pageants that included music,poetry,and dance. 在那时,芭蕾舞在 国王、王后以及贵族之间变得普遍,并且与音乐、诗歌以及舞蹈一起参与到盛会 的表演。 2. It was not until the 1600s that women dancers shortened their skirts, changed to flat shoes, began doing some of the leaps and turns performed by men. 直到 17 世纪 and 女舞者缩短了她们的裙子, 改穿*底鞋,并且通过男舞者的帮助开始做一些跳跃 和转圈动作。 3. The five basic feet positions from which all ballet steps begin were finalized. 由此 正式确定了 脚的 5 个基本位置, 5 个外开的位置成为发展芭蕾舞技术的基础。 这 练*: 1. This passage deals mainly with _____. A) famous names in ballet B) French versus Russian ballet C) the way ballet developed D) why ballet is no longer popular 2. An important influence in early ballet was_____. A) Balanchine B) Marie Antoinette C) Diaghilev D) Louis XIV 3. You can conclude from this passage that ballet_____. A) is a dying art B) will continue to change as new people and ideas influence it C) is only currently performed in Russia and the United States D) is often performed by dancers with little training 4. The information in this passage is presented_____.

A) through the story of one dancer B) by describing various positions and steps C) by listing reasons why ballet has succeeded D) in chronological order 5. The word pageants means_____. A) dances B) instructors C) kings D) elaborate shows 答案与题解: 1. C 本题问的是:这篇文章主要讲述的是,A、B、D 选项都是文章的一部分,而 本文主要讲的就是芭蕾舞的发展,因此 C 是正确答案。 2. D 本题问的是:对于早期芭蕾舞最重要的影响是,本文第三段提到―在 17 世 纪,专业的芭蕾舞蹈团应运而生‖―法国国王路易十四建立了皇家舞蹈学院‖,因 此 D 是正确答案。 3. B 本题问的是:从这篇文章你可以总结出芭蕾,A 、C、D 选项在文中没有提 到,结合本文最后一段可以看出 B 选项是正确的,芭蕾将随着新的人物和新的 想法而改变。 4. D 本题问的是:本文的信息是通过何种方式介绍的。本文从芭蕾舞的起源开始 一直介绍到 芭蕾舞的现况,因此选择 D,按照时间前后的顺序。 5. D 本题问的是:单词 pageant 的汉语意思是什么,正确答案是 D ,盛大的表 演。

12

Smuggling

It is not unusual for a pet to be sent by air cargo from Colombia to New York, but last December‘s shipment of a 4-year-old sheep dog caught a New York Kennedy Airport Customs inspector's eye. The dog looked to be on its last legs, and there was an unusual lump on the side of its body. An X-ray and emergency surgery revealed the presence of 10 condoms tightly packed with five pounds of cocaine that had been surgically implanted in the dog's abdomen—yet another first for Customs in the war on drugs. When it comes to transporting drugs, the methods used are only as limited as a smuggler‘s imagination. Kilo bricks of cocaine are routinely concealed beneath false bottoms of containers that hold poisonous snakes. ―You‘ve got snakes that are 12 feet long,‖ says a United States Fish and Wildlife Service agent—and sometimes the drug is in the snake. ―Who's going to pull it out and feel it? ― In 1994, United States Customs seized 204, 391 pounds of cocaine, 559, 286 pounds of marijuana and 2, 577 pounds of heroin. Just how much actually flows into the country is anyone's guess. Some Customs officials estimate that only 10 percent of

the drugs coming into the country are ever seized. In Miami, the District Attorney won't even prosecute small fry. ―It‘s got to be over five kilos of cocaine, above a kilo of heroin and more than 5, 000 pounds of marijuana or it's not something that we‘re going to stop the presses on,‖ says Tom Cash, a retired agent. Given this deluge, one can only wonder if agents are ever confounded by some of the smuggling methods. ―There are things we haven‘t seen before,‖ says John McGhee, a Miami Customs special agent, ―but nothing really surprises us.‖ 1. The dog was different from others in that A. it could stand only on its hind legs. B. it had only two legs. C. it was very attractive. D. it had a very big abdomen. 2. How many methods are used to transport drugs? A. As many as a smuggler can think of. B. Beyond the smuggler's imagination. C. Only a limited number. D. Only a few. 3. How many pounds of heroin were estimated to be smuggled into the United States in 1994? A. 204,391. B. 2,577. C. 25,770. D. 559,286. 4. Which of the following could best replace the expression ―small fry‖ in the third paragraph? A. Small dogs. B. Small sheep dogs. C. Small smugglers. D. Small ringleaders. 5. What is this article about? A. Drug transportation from Columbia to New York. B. A new method for drug smuggling. C. Varied drug transportation methods. D. Types of drug.

13

The Barbie Dolls

In the mid 1940‘s, the young ambitions duo Ruth and Ellison Handler, owned a company that made wooden pictures frames. It was in 1945 that Ruth and Elliot Handler joined with their close friend Harold Mattson to form a company that would be known for the most famous and successful doll ever created. This company would be named Mattel, MATT for Mattson and EL for Elliot! In the mid 1950's, while visiting Switzerland, Ruth Handler purchased a German Lilly doll. Lilly was a shapely, pretty fashion doll first made in 1955. She was

originally fashioned after a famous cartoon character in the West German Newsletter, Build. Lilly is the doll that would inspire Ruth Handler to design the Barbie doll. With the help of her technicians and engineers at Mattel, Barbie was born. Ruth then hired Charlotte Johnson, a fashion designer, to create Barbie's wardrobe. It was in 1958 that the patent for Barbie was obtained. This would be a fashion doll unlike any of her time. She would be long limbed, shapely, beautiful, and only 11.5 inches tall. Ruth and Elliot would name their new fashion doll after their own daughter, Barbie. In 1959, the Barbie doll would make her way to the New York Toy Show and receive a cool reception from the toy buyers. Barbie has undergone a lot of changes over the years and has managed to keep up with current trends in hairstyles, makeup and clothing. She is a reflection of the history of fashion since her introduction to the toy market. Barbie has a universal appeal and collectors both young and old enjoy time spent and memories made with their dolls. 1. When Ruth and Elliot Handler was young, they had a strong desire A. to go to school. B. to take photos. C. to make frames. D. to be highly successful. 2. Who owned Mattel? A. Mattson. B. Elliot. C. Harold Mattson and Elliot Handler. D. Harold Mattson, Ruth and Elliot Handler. 3. It can be inferred from the second paragraph that Lilly was fashioned after A. Build. B. a German doll. C. a pretty girl. D. a shapely woman. 4. Where did Ruth Handler's inspiration for the design of the Barbie doll come from? A. Barbie. B. Lilly. C. Charlotte Johnson. D. A fashion designer. 5. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the Barbie doll? A. She does not attract young men. B. She has undergone many changes over the years. C. She is 11. 5 inches tall. D. She has managed to keep up with fashion.

14

Sleep

We all know that the normal human daily cycle of activity is of some 7-8 hour‘s sleep alternating with some 16-17 hours' wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. Our present concern is with how easily and to what extent this cycle can be modified. The question is no mere academic one. The case, for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night, is a question of growing importance in industry where automation calls insistently for round-the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed routine of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately, it is often the case in industry that shifts are changed every week; a person may work from 12 midnight to 8 a. m. one week, 8 am to 4 pm the next, and 4 pm to 12 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine than he has to change to another, so that much of his time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently. One answer would seem to be longer periods on each shift, a month, or even three months. Recent research by Bonjer of the Netherlands, however, has shown that people on such systems will revert to their normal habits of sleep and wakefulness during the week-end and the this is quite enough to destroy any adaptation to night work built up during the week. The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a corps of permanent night workers whose nocturnal wakefulness may persist through all weekends and holidays. An interesting study of the domestic life and health of night-shift workers was carried out by Brown. She found a high incidence of disturbed sleep, digestive disorder and domestic disruption among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these symptoms among those on permanent night work. 1. The question raised in Paragraph 2 is ―no mere academic one‖ . A. because Bonjer‘s findings are different from Brown's. B. because sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. C. because some people can change their sleeping habits easily. D. because shift work in industry requires people to change their sleeping habits. 2. According to the passage, the main problem about night work is that A. people hate the inconvenience of working on night shifts. B. your life is disturbed by changing from day to night routines and back. C. not all industries work at the same hours. D. it is difficult to find a corps of good night workers. 3. According to the passage, the best solution to the problem seems to be A. not to change shifts from one week to the next. B. to make periods on each shift longer. C. to employ people who will always work at night.

D. to find ways of selecting people who adapt quickly. 4. In the second paragraph, ―the third‖ means A. the third week. B. the third shift. C. a third of the time. D. the third routine. 5. In the last sentence of the second paragraph, ―another‖ means A. another routine. B. another shift. C. another week. D. another person.

15

Orbital Space Plane

While scientists are searching the cause of the Columbia disaster, NASA is moving ahead with plans to develop a new craft that would replace shuttles on space station missions by 2012 and respond quickly to space station emergencies. The space agency released the first set of mission needs and requirements several days ago for the orbital space plane, which would be designed to transport a crew of four to and from the Interational Space Station. Although it includes few specifics, the plan stipulates the orbiter will be safer, cheaper and require less preparation time than the shuttle. It would be able to transport four crew members by 2012- though it would be available for rescue missions by 2010. NASA says the craft should be able to transport injured or ill space station crew members to ―definitive‖ medical care within 24 hours. The release of the requirements showed NASA remains focused on the long –term priorities of space exploration, even as questions linger concerning the loss of Columbia and its seven-member crew on February 1,2003. Experts at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama,have been working for years on a successor to the shuttle. The project, known as the Space Launch Initiative,was divided last year into two parts – one focusing on a future launch vehicle, the other on a space station orbiter. The orbiter is expected to be ready sooner. The program‘s managers say NASA officials have told them not to alter Space Launch Initiative in light of the Columbia disaster. US President George W.Bush asked Congress for about US$1 billion for Space Launch Initiative in 2004, funds that would be almost equally split between the Orbital Space Plane and NextGeneration Launch Technology. 1. The orbital space craft has been designed for

A controlling the International Space Station B carrying astronauts to the International Space Station C transporting equipment to the International Space Station D training astronauts in space flights. 2. From the passage we know that the design of the orbiter indicates A NANA‘s determination to continue its space exploration projects. B the US space technology superiorities. C a victory in space exploration. D the birth of an absolutely safe space craft. 3. When did the scientists start working on a successor to the shuttle? A Immediately after the Columbia disaster. B One year after the Columbia disaster. C Years before the explosion of Columbia. D Not mentioned in the passage. 4. Besides the main missions stipulated by NASA, the orbiter would also be used as A a space hospital. B a medical research center. C a medicine-transorting vehicle. D a space ambulance. 5. According to the passage, the funds, if granted, would A be used for developing the orbiter only. B be equally shared by the two projects under Space Launch Initiative. C be given to Marshall Space Flight Center. D be mainly used to improve space launch technology.

16

The Sahara

The name Sahara derives from the Arabic word for "desert" or "steppe". At 3. 5 million square miles,an area roughly the size of the United States,the Sahara Desert in northern Africa is the largest desert in the world. lt spans the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. Daytime temperatures can reach as high as 130° The F. humidity sometimes gets into the teens. But it can also be as low as 2. 5 percent,the lowest in the world. Most of the Sahara receives less than five inches of rain per year, while large areas sometimes have no rainfall at all for years. At the heart of the Sahara is the landlocked north African country of Niger. Here the sand dunes can be 100 feet tall and several miles long. Here sand plains stretch over an area larger than Germany where there is neither water nor towns. Yet sitting in the midst of the surrounding desert is the town of Bilma. Suddenly there are pools of

cIear water. Surprisingly, there are groves of date palms. Underground water resources,or oases,sufficient to support irrigated agriculture are found in dry stream beds and depressions. Irrigation ditches run off a creek to water fields. Corn, cassava, tea, peanuts, peppers, orange, hot and lime, grapefruit trees grow in these fields. and Donkeys and goats graze on green grass. The Sahara of Niger is still a region where you can see a camel caravan of 500 camels tied together in loose lines as long as a mile, traveling toward such oasis towns. There a caravan will collect life-sustaining salt,which is mined from watery basins, and transport it up to 400 miles back to settlements on the edges of the desert. The round trip across the vast sands takes one month. 词汇: Humidity /hju'mId ?t l/ n. 湿度 irrigate / ' lrlgelt/ v. 灌溉 stretch / stret?/ v. 伸展 camel /'k m ?l/ n. 骆驼 date palms n. 椰枣树 注释: 1. Underground water resources, oases, or sufficient to support irrigated agriculture are found in dry stream beds and depressions. 在干河床和洼地处可找到充足的地 下水资源或者绿洲来支持灌溉农业。 2. Irrigation ditches run off a creek to water fields. 灌溉沟渠通过一条小溪到达 水田中。 3. Donkeys and goats graze on green grass. 青草上放养着驴和山羊。 练*: 1. This passage is mostly about _______. A) life in the Sahara B) the deserts of Africa C) Bilma D) how camels travel in the desert 2. Rainfall in most of the Sahara is_______. A) less than five inches per year B) less than ten inches per year C) less than twenty inches per year D) zero 3. The Sahara can be described as_______. A) a place of contrasts B) a place where no one Iives C) an area where the winters are cold D) an area that appeals to many tourists 4. The phrase "an area roughly the size of the United States" gives an indication of the size of_______. A) northern Africa B) Niger C) the Sahara D) all of Africa 5. In this passage caravan means _______.

A) traveling circus B) group traveling together through difficult country C) railroad train D) a small,fast sailing ship 答案与题解: 1. A 本题问的是:这篇文章主要讲了什么?根据文段, 本文主要介绍了撒哈拉沙 漠的地理概 况, 城镇的农业, 以及城镇之间的日常来往。 选项范围过宽。 选 B C 项不全面, 文章不止介绍了比尔马的情况。 选项文中没有具体介绍。 D 所以 A 是 对的。 2. A 本题问的是:在撒哈拉的绝大多数地区, 降雨情况如何?根据第一段的最后 一句话,撒哈拉的绝大多数地区每年降雨量低于 5 英寸。所以 A 正确。 3. A 本题问的是:撒哈拉沙漠可以被描述成什么? A 的意思是,一个具有强烈 对比的地方。B 的意思是杳无人烟的地方。C 的意思是冬天很冷的地区。D 的 意思是吸引很多游客的地方。B,C,D 均不符合文意,因此 A 正确。 4. C 本题问的是:句子―大约和美国大小相当的地区‖指明的是什么地方的大小? 根据第一段的第二句话可知,本句的主语是撒哈拉沙漠。因此 C 正确。 5. B 本题问的是:文中―caravan‖的意思是什么? A 的意思是旅行马戏团。C 是 火车。D 是又小又快的帆船。根据文中的介绍,穿过沙漠的驼队由*僦宦嫱 组成,来到绿洲城镇收集 盐,因此 B 选项―一群人一起穿过条件恶劣的国家‖ 是正确的。



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